“Why are materials electrically insulative, conductive, or semiconductive?”
All materials fall into one of three classifications when it comes to moving an electric current, insulative, conductive, or semiconductive. However, what property determines this? Well, let’s look at the atomic level to find out. When multiples atoms come close together, their possible energy states branch out into multiple bands. The two most important bands are the valence (which holds the outermost electrons) and conduction bands (which holds electrons ready to conduct) These bands will be separated by a valence gap.. If there is no difference, then it takes no extra energy to conduct energy and the material is conductive. If there is a noticeable but surmountable gap then the material is semiconductive. And if it is impossible to reach then it is insulative. You can think of it like the distance to a basketball hoop, the higher the height the more energy is required.