The Strange Second State of Water
“Can water have a second liquid state?”
Water is a most peculiar molecular compound. Although this material composes over sixty percent of the human body and the vast majority of the Earth’s surface area, we still know very little about the chemical and physical properties and behaviors of this element. And this idea could not be better exemplified by a most recent discovery lead by a highly intelligent group of scientists.
At Oxford University, A group of physicists led by the postdoctoral research assistant Laura Martinez Maestro had decided to conduct a new experiment on water (Crew, Bec). For this, they took a sample of water at zero degrees Celsius and increased the temperature slowly until it reached one hundred degrees Celsius while measuring the thermal conductivity, refractive index, conductivity, surface tension, and the dielectric constant. Once the water hit, 40 degrees Celsius, its properties started to shift drastically, and once it had hit 60 degrees Celsius all of its properties had changed into something new. Specifically, the temperature of change was 64 degrees Celsius for thermal conductivity, 50 degrees Celsius for refractive index, about 53 degrees Celsius for conductivity, and 57 degrees Celsius for surface tension.
Why does this happen? Although everything seems murky at the moment, this phenomenon might be a consequence of the fact that water molecules only have a very weak bond with one another, and that the bond between oxygen and hydrogen is far greater than the hydrogen-hydrogen bonding. As a result, the molecular structure of molecules is constantly changing and reforming, leading many to believe that this might be the cause for the strange second stage of matter
Crew, Bec. “Physicists Just Discovered a Second State of Liquid Water.” ScienceAlert, ScienceAlert, 14 Nov. 2016, http://www.sciencealert.com/physicists-just-discovered-a-second-state-of-liquid-water.